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* [Note: All sources with two or more authors show the authors listed alphabetically by last names. Superscripts indicate first author, second author, etc. Anonymous sources are alphabetized under the item’s title.]


Austerlitz, Paul. (2000)
“Birch-bark Horns and Jazz in the National Imagination: the Finnish Folk Music Vogue in Historical Perspective.”
Ethnomusicology, Vol. 44 (2): pages 183-213.

Biley, Francis C.  (2000)
“The Effects on Patient Well-being of Music Listening as a Nursing Intervention: a Review of the Literature.”
Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 9 (5): pages 66-677.

Claus-Bachmann, Martina (Guest Editor). (2000)
“Gothic, Metal, Rap, and Rave: Youth Culture and Its Educational Dimensions” (title of the journal issue / book).
the world of music, Vol. 42 (1).

ISSN for journal: 0043-8774; ISBN for book: 3-86135-716-X.
[Note: This themed issue of the journal contains nine articles and was also published as a book with an ISBN. The journal the world of music is the “Journal of the Ethnomusicology Programme. The University of Sheffield” see: This journal is also listed online as being “A Journal of the Department of Musicology of the George August University, Göttingen.]

Hargreaves, David J.2 / North, Adrian C.1 and O'Neill, Susan A.3 (2000)
“The Importance of Music to Adolescents.”
British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 70 (2): pages 255-272.

Harris, Keith. (2000)
“'Roots'?: the Relationship Between the Global and the Local Within the Global Extreme Metal Scene.”
Popular Music, Vol. 19 (1): pages 13-30.

Hutnyk, John1 and Sharma, Sanjay2. (2000)
“Music and Politics: an Introduction.”
Theory Culture and Society, Vol. 17 (3): pages 55-63.

[Note: References Walser's 1993 book: Running with the Devil.]

Introvigne, Massimo. (March 26, 2000)
“The Gothic Milieu: Black Metal, Satanism, and Vampires.”
CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions.

[Note: “CESNUR, the Center for Studies on New Religions (Torino, Italy) was established in 1988 by a group of religious scholars from leading universities in Europe and the Americas. Professor Massimo Introvigne is the managing director.” Source:]

Krenske, Leigh1 and McKay, Jim2. (2000) “
’Hard and Heavy’: Gender and Power in a Heavy Metal Music Subculture.”
Gender, Place and Culture, Vol. 7 (3): pages 287-304.

[Note: This article was reprinted as a chapter in the book: Qualitative Research in Practice: Examples for Discussion and Analysis, edited by Sharan B. Merriam.] 

Kurz, Tamara. (2000)
“Der Tod und das Mädchen: Dramatic Expression of the Gothic Subculture in School Instruction [Death and the Maiden:...].”
the world of music Vol. 42 (1): 137-147.

ISSN: 0043-8774; ISBN: 3-86135-716-X.
[Note: This issue has the theme “Gothic, Metal, Rap, and Rave: Youth Culture and Its Educational Dimensions” and was also published as a book. Claus-Bachmann, Martina (Guest editor).]

Roccor, Bettina.(2000)
“Heavy Metal: Forces of Unification and Fragmentation within a Musical Subculture.”
World of Music =Die Welt der Musi =Le Monde de la Musique: Quarterly Journal of the International Music Council, Vol. 42 (1): pages 83-94.
ISSN: 0043-8774; ISBN: 3-86135-716-X.
[Note: This issue has the theme “Gothic, Metal, Rap, and Rave: Youth Culture and Its Educational Dimensions” and was also published as a book. Claus-Bachmann, Martina (Guest editor).]

Roe, Keith (August 2000)
“Adolescents’ Media Use: a European View [Conference Proceedings].”
Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 27 (2, Supplement 1): pages 15-21.

Valdez, Al. (2000)
“The Straight Edge Scene: Rated XXX: the Straight Edge Movement Preaches against Several Human Vices, but Some Members Believe in Enforcing their Beliefs through Violence.”
Police: The Law Enforcement Magazine.
Redondo Beach: Sep 2000. Vol. 24 (9), page 52.
[Note: Abstract: “Many of today's "youth groups" have been heavily influenced by the music scene. Of all the movements, one in particular, Straight Edge, still maintains strong ties with the music world.” This short article is freely available online.]

Wood, Robert T. (2000)
“Threat Transcendence, Ideological Articulation, and Frame of Reference Reconstruction: Preliminary Concepts for a Theory of Subcultural Schism.”
Deviant Behavior, Vol. 21 (1): pages 23-45.

doi: 10.1080/016396200266360.

Wright, Robert. (2000)
“’I'd Sell You Suicide’: Pop Music and Moral Panic in the Age of Marilyn Manson.”
Popular Music, Vol. 19 (3): pages 365-386.


Brodsky, Warren. (2001)
“The Effects of Music Tempo on Simulated Driving Performance and Vehicular Control.”
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 4 (4): pages 219-241.

Claes, Michel2 / Lacourse, Eric1 and Villeneuve, Martine3. (2001)
“Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.”
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 30 (3): pages 321-332.

ISSN: 0047-2891.

Greene, Paul. (2001)
“Mixed Messages: Unsettled Cosmopolitans in Nepali Pop.”
Popular Music, Vol. 20 (2): pages 169-188.

Jackson, John. (2001)
“Youth and the Popular Music Business.”
Queensland Journal of Educational Research,
Vol. 17: pages 85-105.
[Note: Freely available online]

Lewis, James R. (2001)
“Who Serves Satan?: a Demographic and Ideological Profile.”
Marburg Journal of Religion
, Vol. 6 (2). ISSN 1612-2941.
[Note: This is an online-only journal. This article is freely available online]

Martin, Brett A. S.1 and McCracken, Celeste A.2 (2001)
“Consumption Imagery in New Zealand Music Videos.”
Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 13 (2): pages 3-22.

Tarrant, Mark1 / North, Adrian C.2 and Hargreaves, David J.3 (2001)
“Social Categorization, Self-Esteem, and the Estimated Musical Preferences of Male Adolescents.”
The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 14 (5): pages 565-581.


Beckwith, Karl. (2002)
“’Black Metal is for White People’: Constructs of Colour and Identity Within the Extreme Metal Scene.”
M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture,
Vol. 5 (3).
ISSN: 1441-2616.
[Note: This peer-reviewed eJournal is freely available online]

Bennett, Andy. (2002)
“Researching Youth Culture and Popular Music: a Methodological Critique.”
The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 53 (3): pages 451-466.

Beresin, Eugene V.2 and Reddick, Brad H.1 (2002)
“Rebellious Rhapsody: Metal, Rap, Community, and Individuation.”
Academic Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry, Vol. 26 (1): pages 51-59.

Burge, Micah1 / Goldblat, Corrie2 and Lester, David3. (2002)
“Music Preferences and Suicidality: a Comment on Stack.”
Death Studies, Vol. 26 (6): pages 501-504.

[Note: This is a reader’s comment on: Death Studies, 2000 April-May / Vol. 24 (3): pages 223-231 and Death Studies, 2002 June/ Vol. 26 (5): pages 431-437]

Eyerman, Ron. (2002)
“Music in Movement: Cultural Politics and Old and New Social Movements.”
Qualitative Sociology, Vol. 25 (3): pages 443-458.

[Note: This article contains a short section entitled: "White Power (Vit Makt) Music in Sweden.”]

Guibert, Gérôme. (2002)
“Notes à Propos de Deux Ouvrages Récents sur le Black Metal [Notes about Two Recent Books on Black Metal].”
VOLUME!: La Revue des Musiques Populaires/ The French Journal of Popular Music Studies, Vol. 1 (1): pages 124-127.

[Note: this online-only journal previously had the name of “Copyright Volume!” This article is freely available online]

Hein, Fabien. (2002)
“Le « stoner rock » en France: Exemple de constitution d’un genre musical.”

VOLUME!: La Revue des Musiques Populaires/ The French Journal of Popular Music Studies,
Vol. 1 (1): pages 47-60.
[Note: This online-only journal previously had the name of “Copyright Volume !” This article is freely available online]

Helton, Jesse J.1 and Staudenmeier, Jr., William J.2 (2002)
“Re-imagining Being ‘Straight’ in Straight Edge.”
Contemporary Drug Problems, Vol. 29 (2): pages 445-473.

Kahn-Harris, Keith. (2002)
“’I Hate This Fucking Country’: Dealing with the Global and the Local in the Israeli Extreme Metal Scene.”
Critical Studies, Vol. 19: (Music, Popular Culture, Identities): pages 133-151.

Kotarba, Joseph A. (2002)
“Popular Music and Teenagers in Post-communist Poland.”
Studies in Symbolic Interaction, Vol. 25: pages 233-246.

ISSN: 0163-2396, ISBN: 978-0-76230-851-4.
doi 10.1016/S0163-2396(02)80050-3

Lohmann, Johannes. (2002)
“Wiedererwachen Germanischer Werte? [Revival of Germanic Values?].”
Journal der Jugendkulturen[Journal of Youth Cultures],No. 7: pages 8-16.
ISSN 1439-4324.
[Note: The text of this article is freely available online]

Moore, Allan. (2002)
“Authenticity as Authentication.”
Popular Music, Vol. 21: pages 209-222.

Smith, Stacy L.1 and Boyson, Aaron R2 (2002)
“Re-imagining Being ‘Straight’ in Straight Edge.”
Contemporary Drug Problems.

“Violence in Music Videos: Examining the Prevalence and Context of Physical Aggression.”
Journal of Communication, Vol. 52 (1): pages 61-83.

Wallach, Jeremy. (2002)
“Exploring Class, Nation and Xenocentrism in Indonesian Cassette Retail Outlets.”
Indonesia, Vol. 74: pages 79-102.


Alvelar, Idelber. (2003)
“Heavy Metal Music in Postdictatorial Brazil: Sepultura and the Coding of Nationality in Sound.”
Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, Vol. 12 (3): pages 329-346.

Areni, Charles S. (2003)
“Exploring Managers’ Implicit Theories of Atmospheric Music: Comparing Academic Analysis to Industry Insight.”
Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 17 (2): pages 161-184.

Atkinson, Michael. (2003)
“The Civilizing of Resistance: Straightedge Tattooing.”
Deviant Behavior, Vol. 24 (2): pages 197-220.

Baulch, Emma. (2003)
“Gesturing Elsewhere: the Identity Politics of the Balinese Death/Thrash Metal Scene.”
Popular Music, Vol. 22 (2): pages 195-216.

Fried, Carrie B. (2003)
“Stereotypes of Music Fans: Are Rap and Heavy Metal Fans a Danger to Themselves or Others?”
Journal of Media Psychology, Vol. 8 (3): [27 pages].

Fromm, R. (2003)
“Genese der Black Metal-Subkultur und des Neosatanismus in der Rockmusik [Genesis of the Black Metal Subculture and the Neosatanismus in Rock Music].”
BPJM-Aktuell [BPJM-News], Vol. 4: pages 6-12.

Glanzer, Perry L. (2003)
“Christ and the Heavy Metal Subculture: Applying Qualitative Analysis to the Contemporary Debate about H. Richard Niebuhr's Christ and Culture.”
Journal of Religion and Society, Vol. 5 [No Pagination].
ISSN 1522-5658.

Hennessy, Dwight A.2 / Wiesenthala, David L.1 and Tottena, Brad3. (2003)
“The influence of Music on Mild Driver Aggression.”
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 6 (2): pages 125-134.

Jipguep, Marie-Claude1 and Sanders-Phillips, Kathy2. (2003)
“The Context of Violence for Children of Color: Violence in the Community and in the Media.”
The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 72 (4): pages. 379-395.

Issue Title: Commercialism in the Lives of Children and Youth of Color: Education and Other Socialization Contexts.
[Note: Contains a very brief mention of heavy metal video research findings.]

Jobes, David A.3 / Peterson, Rebecca J.5 / Rustad, Robin A.1 / Safer, Martin A4 and Small, Jacob E.2 (2003)  
“The Impact of Rock Videos and Music with Suicidal Content on Thoughts and Attitudes About Suicide.”
Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, Vol. 33 (2): pages 120-131.

Williams, J. Patrick. (2003)
“The Straightedge Subculture on the Internet: a Case Study of Style-display Online.”
Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy Journal, Vol. 107: pages 61-74.

Wood, Robert T. (2003)
“The Straightedge Youth Sub-Culture: Observations on the Complexity of Sub-Cultural Identity.”
Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 6 (1): pages 33-52.


Haenfler, Ross. (2004)
“Collective Identity in the Straight Edge Movement: How Diffuse Movements Foster Commitment, Encourage Individualized Participation, and Promote Cultural Change.”
The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 45 (4): pages 785-805.

doi: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.2004.tb02314.x

Haenfler, Ross. (2004)
“Manhood in Contradiction: the Two Faces of Straight Edge.”
Men and Masculinities, Vol. 7 (1): pages 77-99.

Haenfler, Ross. (2004)
“Rethinking Subcultural Resistance: Core Values of the Straight Edge Movement.”
Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 33 (4): pages 406-436. 

doi 10.1177/0891241603259809
[Note: Freely available online]

Halnon, Karen Bettez. (2004)
“Inside Shock Music Carnival: Spectacle as Contested Terrain,”
Critical Sociology, Vol. 30 (3): pages 743-779.

Kahn-Harris, Keith. (2004)
“The ‘Failure’ of Youth Culture: Reflexivity, Music and Politics in the Black Metal Scene.”
European Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 7 (1): pages 95-111.

Murphy, Laurel C.2 and Weisskirch, Robert S.1
“Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students.” Adolescence, Vol. 39 (154): pages 189-201.

Waksman, Steve. (2004)
“California Noise: Tinkering with Hardcore and Heavy Metal in Southern California.”
Social Studies of Science, Vol. 34 (5): pages 675-702.