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* [Note: All sources with two or more authors show the authors listed alphabetically by last names. Superscripts indicate first author, second author, etc. Anonymous sources are alphabetized under the item’s title.]


Di Saia, John. (1990)
“Adolescents and their Music: Paganini, Satanists, and Insider Trading.”
JAMA, February 9 / Vol. 263 (6): pages 812-3.

[Note: This is a reader comment on: JAMA, September 22-29, 1989/ Vol. 262 (12): pages 1659-63.]

Epstein, Johnathan S.1 and Pratto, David J.2 (1990)
“Heavy Metal Rock Music: Juvenile Delinquency and Satanic Identification.”
Popular Music and Society, Vol. 14 (4): pages 67-76.

Epstein, Jonathon S.1 / Pratto, David J.2 and Skipper, Jr., James3. (1990)
“Teenagers, Behavioural Problems, and Preferences for Heavy Metal and Rap Music: a Case Study of a Southern Middle School.”
Deviant Behaviour, Vol. 11 (4): pages 381-394.

Gross, Robert L. (1990)
“Heavy Metal Music: A New Subculture in American Society.”
Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 24 (1): pages 119-129.

Hakanen, Ernest A.1 and Wells, Alan2. (1990)
“Adolescent Music Marginals: Who Likes Metal, Jazz, Country and Classical.”
Popular Music and Society, Vol. 14: pages 57-66.

Katheder, G. (1990)
“Heavy Metal ist nicht Böse, Es Sieht Nur Ao us [Heavy Metal is not Evil, It Just Looks Like It].”
Unsere Jugend: uj : die Zeitschrift für Studium und Praxis der Sozialpädagogik [Our Youth: uj:Journal of the Study and Practice of Social work], Vol. 42: pages 43-46. 

ISSN 0342-5258.
Language: German

Wells, Alan. (1990)
“Popular Music: Emotional Use and Management.”
Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 24 (1): pages 105-117.


Arnett, Jeffrey. (1991)
“Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths of Metalheads.”
Youth and Society, Vol. 23 (1): pages 76-98.

Arnett, Jeffrey. (1991)
“Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behaviour.”
Journal of Youth and Adolescence,Vol.20 (6): pages 573-592.

Bleich, Susan / Weaver, James and Zillmann, Dolf.
“Enjoyment and Consumption of Defiant Rock Music as a Function of Adolescent Rebelliousness.”
Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 35 (3): pages 351-366.  

ISSN 1550-6878.

Breen, Marcus. (1991)
“A Stairway to Heaven or a Highway to Hell?: Heavy Metal Rock Music in the 1990s.”
Cultural Studies, Vol. 5: pages 191-203.

David, Carlos3 / Egnor, Michael R.1 and Page, Larry K.2 (1991-1992)
“Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: a Unique Hazard of Head Banging by Heavy Metal Rockers. Case Report.”
Pediatric Neurosurgery, Vol. 17 (3): pages 135-138.

Demi, Alice S.2 and Weidinger, Carol K.1 (1991)
“Music Listening Preferences and Preadmission Dysfunctional Psychosocial Behaviors of Adolescents Hospitalized on an In-patient Psychiatric Unit.”
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, January-Marc h/ Vol. 4 (1): pages 3-8.

Hakanen, Ernest A.2 and Wells, Alan1. (1991)
“The Emotional Use of Popular Music by Adolescents.”
Journalism Quarterly, Vol. 68 (3): pages 445-54.

Hansen, Christine Hall1 and Hansen, Ranald D.2 (1991)
“Constructing Personality and Social Reality through Music: Individual Differences Among Fans of Punk and Heavy Metal Music.”
Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 35 (3): pages 335-350.

 ISSN: 1550-6878.

Hansen, Christine Hall1 and Hansen, Ranald D.2 (1991)
“Schematic Information Processing of Heavy Metal Lyrics.”
Communication Research, Vol. 18: pages 373-411.

Joyner, Doris J.2 and St. Lawrence, Janet S.1 (1991)
“The Effects of Sexually Violent Rock Music on Males’ Acceptance of Violence Against Women”
Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 15 (1): pages 49-63.

doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1991.tb00477.x

“Police Link Satanism, Heavy Metal Music to Suicide.”
Juvenile Justice Digest, Vol. 19 (11): page 4.

Prinsky, Lorraine2 and Rosenbaum, Jill Leslie1 (1991)
“The Presumption of Influence: Recent Responses to Popular Music Subcultures.”
Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 37 (4): pages 528-535. 

ISSN: 0011-1287.


Burton, Dee5 / Dent, Clyde W.1 / Flay, Brian R.6 / Galaif, Jon2 / Sussman, Steve3 and Stacy, Alan W.4 (1992)
“Music Preference as a Diagnostic Indicator of Adolescent Drug Use.”
American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82 (1): pages 124-124.

[Note: This Letter to the Editor with statistics is presented in response to an article discussing the use of music preference as a diagnostic tool.]

Christenson, Peter G. (1992)
“The Effects of Parental Advisory Labels on Adolescent Music Preferences.”
Journal of Communication, Vol. 42: page 106.

Drake-Lee, A. B. (1992)
“Beyond Music: Auditory Temporary Threshold Shift in Rock Musicians after a Heavy Metal Concert.”
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, October/ Vol. 85 (10): pages 617-619.

Hinds, Elizabeth Jane Wall. (1992)
“The Devil Sings the Blues: Heavy Metal, Gothic Fiction and ‘Postmodern’ Discourse.”
The Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 26 (3): pages 151–164.

Kennedy, C. T.2 and Marshman, G.1 (1992)
“Guitar-string Dermatitis.”
Contact Dermatitis, February/ Vol. 26 (2): page 134. 

ISSN: 0105-1873.

Walser, Robert. (1992)
“Eruptions: Heavy Metal Appropriations of Classical Virtuosity.”
Popular Music, Vol. 22 (3): pages 263-308.


Arnett, Jeffrey. (1993)
“Three Profiles of Heavy Metal Fans: a Taste for Sensation and a Subculture of Alienation.”
Qualitative Sociology, Vol. 16 (4): pages 423-43.

Avantario, V. (1993)
“Hard and Heavy: Geschichte und Stilarten des Heavy Metal [Hard and Heavy: History and Styles of Heavy Metal].”
Die Grünen Hefte: Zeitschrift für die Praxis des Musikunterrichts [The Green Issues: Journal of the Practice of Music Education], Vol. 38: pages 22-25

ISSN: 0937-9584, also: 0722-0030.
Language: German.
[Note: Published by Institut für Didaktik der Populären Musik.]

Banks, Molly4 / Fucci, Donald1 / Harris, Daniel2 and Petrosino, Linda3 (1993)
“Effect of Preference for Rock Music on Magnitude-production Scaling Behavior in Young Adults: a Validation”
Perceptual and Motor Dkills, December/ Vol. 77 (3, Part 1): pages 811-815.

Binder, Amy. (1993)
“Constructing Racial Rhetoric: Media Depictions of Harm in Heavy Metal and Rap Music.”
American Sociological Review, Vol. 58 (6): pages 753-767.

Brown, Jane D.2 / Childers, Kim Walsh4 / Dykers, Carol3 / Klein, Jonathan D.1 / Oliveri, Janice5 and Porter, Carol6. (1993)
“Adolescents' Risky Behavior and Mass Media Use.”
Pediatrics, July/ Vol. 92 (1): pages 24-31.

[Note: There is a reader comment related to this in: Pediatrics. 1993 July/ Vol. 92 (1): pages 146-8.]

Clarke, Michael2 / Martin, Graham1 and Pearce, Colby3 (1993)
“Adolescent Suicide: Music Preference as an Indicator of Vulnerability.”
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, May/ Vol. 32 (3): pages 530-5.
ISSN: 0890-8567; also 1527-5418.

Englis, Basil G.1 / Olofsson, Anxia3 and Solomon, Michael R.2 (1993)
“Consumption Imagery in Music Television: a Bi-Cultural Perspective.”
Journal of Advertising, Vol. 22 (4): pages 21-33.

Fornäs, John. (1993)
“Play It Yourself”: Swedish Music in Movement.”
Social Science Information, Vol. 32 (39)

Jou, Susyan3 / Levine, Murray2 and Singer, Simon I.1 (1993)
“Heavy Metal Music Preference, Delinquent Friends, Social Control, and Delinquency.”
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency,Vol. 30 (3), pages 317-329.

Schütz, V. (1993)
Auf der Suche Nach dem Eigenen Inneren Geheimnis: Rockmusik als Symbol Jugendlicher Religiosität [In Search of Your Own Inner Mystery: Rock Music as a Symbol of Youthful Piety].
Musik und Unterricht: Zeitschrift für Musikkpädagogik [Music and Instruction: Journal of Music Pedagogy], Vol. 4, pages 15-21.

Language: German.
[Note: Contains a discussion of the beginning of Warlock's song "All We Are".]

Walser, Robert. (1993)
Professing Censorship: Academic Attacks on Heavy Metal.
Journal of Popular Music Studies, Vol. 5: pages 68-78.

Willis, Susan. (1993)
“Hardcore: Subculture American Style.”
Critical Inquiry, Vol. 19 (2): pages 365-383.


Epstein, Jonathon S.1 and Friesen, Bruce K.2 (1994)
“Rock 'n' Roll Ain't Noise Pollution: Artistic Conventions and Tensions in the Major Sub-Genres of Heavy Metal Music”
Popular Music and Society, Vol. 19: pages 1-18.

Esser, G. (1994)
“Zur Hölle mit dem Teufel: die Geheiligten Kämpfer des White Metal [To Hell with the Devil: the Holy Warriors of the White Metal].”
Der Evangelische Erzieher: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik und Theologie [The Lutheran Educator: Journal of Education and Theology], Vol. 46: pages 161-168.

Language: German.

Farberow, N. L.2 and Litman, R. E.1 (1994)
“Pop-Rock Music as Precipitating Cause in Youth Suicide.”
Journal of Forensic Sciences, March/ Vol. 39 (2): pages 494-9. 

ISSN: 0022-1198.

Gawlik, M. (1994)
“Skins, Punks, Kutten und Heavys: Probleme und Ressourcen von Subkultur­Jugendlichen in den neuen Bundesländern: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Jugendbefragung [Skins, Punks, Heavies and Habits: Issues and Resources of Sub-cultural Youth in Eastern Germany: Results of a Representative Youth Survey].”
Unsere Jugend : uj : die Zeitschrift für Studium und Praxis der Sozialpädagogik [Our Youth: uj: Journal of the Study and Practice of Social work], Vol. 46, pages 419-426.

Language: German.

Harrell, Jack (1994)
“The Poetics of Deconstruction: Death Metal Rock.”
Popular Music and Society, Vol. 18 (1): pages 91-103. 

ISSN: 0300-7766.
doi: 10.1080/03007769408591546.

Gundlach, Jim2 / Reeves, Jimmie L.3 and Stack, Steven1. (1994)
“The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.”
Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, Vol. 24 (1), pages 15-23.

Jenal, Ch. (1994)
“Jugendgewalt im Spiegel der Musikkultur [Youth Violence in the Mirror of the Music Culture].

Kind Jugend Gesellschaft: Zeitschrift für Jugendschutz [Child Youth Society: Journal of Youth Protection], Vol. 39: pages 20-23.

Language: German.

Martinez Garcia, Silvia. (1994)
El Fenomen Musical de les Tribus Urbanes a Barcelona: el Heavy Metal [The Musical Phenomenon of Urban Tribes in Barcelona: Heavy Metal].
Revista d’Etnologia de Catalunya [Catalonian Journal of Ethnicity], Number 11: pages 120-123.

Language: Catalonian.

Took, Kevin J.1 and Weiss, David S.2 (1994)
“The Relationship between Heavy Metal and Rap Music and Adolescent Turmoil: Real or Artifact.”
Adolescence, Vol. 29, pages 613-622.