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* [Note: All sources with two or more authors show the authors listed alphabetically by last names. Superscripts indicate first author, second author, etc. Anonymous sources are alphabetized under the item’s title.]


Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen (1995).
“Adolescents' Uses of Media for Self-socialization.”
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 24 (5): pages 519-533.

Ballard, Mary E.1 and Coates, Steven2. (1995)
“The Immediate Effects of Homicidal, Suicidal, and Nonviolent Heavy Metal and Rap Songs on the Moods of College Students.”
Youth and Society, Vol. 27 (2), pages 148-168.

Brown, Charles M. (1995)
“Musical Responses to Oppression and Alienation: Blues, Spirituals, Secular Thrash, and Christian Thrash Metal Music.”
International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, Vol. 8 (3): pages 439-452.

Hansen, Christine Hall. (1995)
“Predicting Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Gangsta Rap.”
Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 16 (1/2): pages 43-52.

[Note:Contains several mentions of heavy metal.]

Larson, Reed2 and Thompson, Robert L.1 (1995)
“Social Context and the Subjective Experience of Different Types of Rock Music.”
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 2 (6): pages 731-744

Petrov, Anne. (1995)
“The Sound of Suburbia (Death Metal).”
American Book Review, Vol. 16 (6): page 5.

Roe, Keith. (1995)
“Adolescents' Use of Socially Disvalued Media: Toward a Theory of Media Delinquency.”
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 24 (5): pages 617-631.

ISSN: 0047-2891.

Strouse, Jeremiah S. (1995)
“Gender and Family as Moderators of the Relationship between Music Video Exposure and Adolescent Sexual Permissiveness.”
Adolescence, Vol. 30 (119): pages 505-521.


Alarie, Sophie1 and Brochu, Serge2. (1996)
“Listening to ‘Heavy Metal’ and Deviancy: a Complex Link.”
Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique (Switzerland), Vol. 49 (3): pages 300-311.

ISSN: 0035-3329.

[Anonymous] (1996)
“American Academy of Pediatrics. Impact of Music Lyrics and Music Videos on Children and Youth (RE9144). Committee on Communications.”
Pediatrics, December / Vol. 98 (6, Part 1): pages 1219-1221.

Björnberg, Alf. (1996)
“Om Tonal Analys av Nutida Populärmusik [About Tonal Analysis of Contemporary Popular Music].”
Dansk Årbog for Musikforskning [Danish Yearbook for Music Research], Vol. 24: pages 69-84.

[Note: Contains detailed discussion of tonality in Napalm Death’s song ‘Suffer the Children’] 
Corporate Author: Dansk Selskab for Musikforskning [Danish Society for Music Research].

Björnberg, Alf and Stockfelt, Ola. (1996)
“Kristen Klatvask fra Vejle: Danish Pub Music, Mythscapes and ‘Local Camp.’”
Popular Music, Vol. 15 (2): pages 131-147.


Bryson, Bethany. (1996)
“’Anything but Heavy Metal’: Symbolic Exclusion and Musical Dislikes.”
American Sociological Review, Vol. 61 (5), pages 884-899.

Grant, Judith. (1996)
“Bring the Noise: Hypermasculinity in Heavy Metal and Rap.”
Journal of Social Philosophy, Vol. 27 (2): pages 5-31.

doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9833.1996.tb00235.x

Kern, Roger M.2 and Peterson, Richard A.1 (1996)
“Changing Highbrow Taste: from Snob to Omnivore.”
American Sociological Review, Vol.61: pages 900-907.

Lester, David1 and Whipple, Melissa2. (1996)
“Music Preference, Depression, Suicidal Preoccupation, and Personality: Comment on Stack and Gundlach's Papers."
Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior. Vol. 26 (1): pages 68-70.

[Note: The authors were affiliated with the Center for the Study of Suicide, Blackwood, New Jersey.]


Berger, Harris M. (1997)
“The Practice of Perception: Multi-Functionality and Time in the Musical Experience of a Heavy Metal Drummer.”
Ethnomusicology, Vol. 41 (3): pages 464-488.

Bloom, Larry J.2 and Gowensmith, William Neil1. (1997)
“The Effects of Heavy Metal Music on Arousal and Anger."
The Journal of Music Therapy, Vol. 34, pages 33-45.

Bryson, Bethany. (1997)
“What About the Univores? Music Dislikes and Group-based Identity Construction among Amercians with Low Levels of Education.”
Poetics,Vol.25: pages 141-156.

Dickson, John. (1997)
“Heavy Metal: an Unlikely Spirituality?”
Theology, Vol. 100 (797): pages 323-330.

Kilthau, Oliver1 / Winter, Arnd2 / Ebner, Hermann G.3 (1997)
“Zur Kraft des Stereotyps: eine empirische Analyse behaupteter Zusammenhänge von Einstellungen und Musikpräferenzen von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Heavy Metal [The Power of the Stereotype: an Empirical Analysis of Alleged Links between Music Preferences and Attitudes of Adolescents and Young Adults with Special Reference to Heavy Metal].”
Zeitschrift für Sozialisationsforschung und Erziehungssoziologie [Journal of Sociology of Education and Socialization Research], Vol. 17: pages 368-381.

Martínez García, Sílvia (1997)
“El Heavy Metal a Barcelona: Aportacions a l'Estudi d'una Musica Popular [Heavy Metal in Barcelona: Contributions to the Study of Popular Music].”
Revista D'Etnologia de Catalunya [Catalonia Journal of Ethnicity], Vol. 11: pages 120-23.

Language is Catalan.
[Note: See also same title and year of publication by this author under “Dissertations”.]

McLean, Polly E. (1997)
“Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: A Cross-cultural Reading of Popular Music in the Construction of Sexual Expression Among At-risk Adolescents.”
Popular Music and Society, Vol. 21 (2), pages 1-16. ISSN: 1740-1712.


Deyhle, Donna. (1998)
“From Break Dancing to Heavy Metal: Navajo Youth, Resistance, and Identity.”
Youth and Society, Vol. 30 (1): pages 3-31.

Dimsdale, Joel2 / East, Patricia3 / Friedman, Lawrence4 and Roberts, Kendall R.1 (1998)
“Adolescent Emotional Response to Music and its Relationship to Risk-taking Behaviors.”
Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 23 (1): pages 49-54.

[Note: There is a reader comment in: Journal of Adolescent Health, 1998 July/ Vol. 23 (1): pages 1-2.]

Martin, Graham. (1998)
“Media Influence to Suicide: the Search for Solutions.”
Archives of Suicide Research, Vol. 4 (1), pages 51-66.

Stack, Steven. (1998)
“Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.”
Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior, Vol. 28 (4): pages 388-94.

Yarnold, Barbara M. (1998)
“Steroid Use Among Miami's Public School Students, 1992: Alternative Subcultures- Religion and Music Versus Peers and the ‘Body Cult’". Psychological Reports, Vol. 82 (1): pages 19-24.


Ahlkvist, Jarl A. (1999)
“Music and Cultural Analysis in the Classroom: Introducing Sociology through Heavy Metal.”
Teaching Sociology, Vol. 27 (2): pages 126-144.

Ballard, Mary E.1 / Bazzini, Doris G.2 and Dodson, Alan R.3 (1999)
“Genre of Music and Lyrical Content: Expectation Effects.”
Journal of Genetic Psychology,Vol. 160 (4): page 476-487.

Berger, Harris M. (1999)
“Death Metal Tonality and the Act of Listening.”
Popular Music, Vol. 18 (2): pages 161-178.

Hallett, David F.1 and Martin, J. Robin2 (1999)
“Overlooked Pearls: the Blue Oyster Cult and the Vampire in Popular Music.”
Journal of Dracula Studies, Vol. 1: [Annual, online, open source journal.]

Hargreaves, David J.2 and North, Adrian C.1 (1999)
“Music and Adolescent Identity.”
Music Education Research, Vol. (1): pages 75-92.
ISSN: 1469-9893.

Harris, Keith. (1999)
“An Orphaned Land?: Israel and the Global Extreme Metal Scene.”
New Voices in Jewish Thought, Vol. 2: pages 1-21. London: Limmud Publications.

[Note: Journal issue was edited by Keith Harris.]

Irwin, Darrell D. (1999)
“The Straight Edge Subculture: Examining the Youths' Drug-free Way.”
Journal of Drug Issues, Vol. 29 (2): pages 365-380.

McNamara, Linda1 and Ballard, Mary E.2 (1999)
“Resting Arousal, Sensation Seeking, and Music Preference.”
Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, Vol. 125 (3): pages 229-250.

Richter, Stacey. (1999)
“Goal 666.”
Granta, Vol. 66: pages 147-161.

Scheel, Karen R.1 and Westefeld, John S.2 (1999)
“Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: an Empirical Investigation.”
Adolescence, Vol. 34 (134): pages 253-273.

Soccio, Lisa. (1999)
“From Girl to Woman to Grrrl: (Sub)Cultural Intervention and Political Activism in the Time of Post-Feminism.”
Issue 2.

Tsitsos, William. (1999)
“Slamdancing, Moshing and the American Alternative Scene.”
Popular Music, Vol. 18 (3): pages 397-414.

Vestel, Viggo. (1999)
“Breakdance, Red Eyed Penguins, Vikings, Grunge and Straight Rock 'n' Roll: the Construction of Place in Musical Discourse in Rudenga, East Side Oslo.”
Young, Vol. 7 (2): pages 4-24.

Wood, Robert T. (1999)
“’Nailed to the X’: a Lyrical History of the Straightedge Youth Subculture.”
Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 2 (2): pages 133-151.